The NFL MTBI (mild-traumatic brain injury) Committee, which was established in 1994, is studying to determine if there are any long-term effects of concussions on retired NFL players. NFL-funded concussion research directed by the MTBI Committee has led to the publication of peer-reviewed scientific papers and helped advance the understanding of concussions and player safety. Including:

* Analysis and definition of concussions: Using 3-D analysis of game video to define the velocity and orientation of impacts that cause concussion. Reconstructing game concussions to determine the head acceleration and forces causing injury. Determining game-actual impacts that cause concussion.

* Development and enforcement of rules to promote player safety: Assisting the league in developing rules to prevent unnecessary helmet impacts and spearing of players with head-down tackles. Defining the positions and impacts most vulnerable to concussion and emphasizing the need for protecting quarterbacks, receivers and defensive backs.

* Improved testing and other helmet-related developments: Defining standardized test procedures to evaluate new helmet design and providing information to the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) that led it to revise and update its testing standards. Developing test equipment and protocols for evaluating the safety performance of helmets for concussion. Encouraging objective evaluation of new helmets designed to lower the risk of concussion and encouraging research to further improve helmets in the future. Sharing testing information with helmet manufacturers and NOCSAE for use in their efforts to improve helmet design and safety.

* Understanding effects and management of concussions: Evaluating injury data to determine risks and treatment for concussion, repeat injury, player return to play, and other epidemiology of concussion. Defining post-concussion syndrome as well as investigating the recovery from the injury over time. Recommending that the management and evaluation of concussions be based upon the scientific medical assessment of physicians and not on arbitrary guidelines.