1.

All identify themselves as "Catholic" or "Roman Catholic."

1b.

They identify themselves as "Baptist."

2.

They're all unfinished.

3.

False. Jefferson used the phrase in a letter of 1802 to the Danbury Baptist Association. The famous passage in full: "I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, thus building a wall of separation between church and state." Jefferson is referring to the "no establishment" clause of the First Amendment, ratified in 1791, 11 years before the writing of the letter. This was James Madison's baby, like the rest of the Bill of Rights, which he introduced as a bill in Congress in 1789.

4.

Way false. It was written by a Baptist minister in 1892 and published in a magazine. It became unofficially official, and the words "under God," not in the original Pledge, were added by a congressional bill, signed by President Dwight Eisenhower on Flag Day 1954.

5.

a.: 4.; b.: 5.; c.: 1.; d.: 3.; e.: 2.

6.

Last names that mean "church" or "churches."

7.

They all do.

7b.

True: It is incised into the edge of these new coins.

8.

Washington, clad only in a, well, sheet, is depicted as Zeus Law-giver.