My guess is that you, like most American adults, have at least one New Year’s resolution.

But resolving to change, however fervently you wish to do so, is no guarantee that you’ll actually follow through.

Why not?

One reason is that most goals cannot be accomplished all at once and on the spot. You need a way to bridge your current intentions with your future actions. And contrary to popular belief, you don’t need more willpower; you need a strategy.

Decades of research on how children and adults turn intentions into actions have culminated in a four-step process that psychologist Gabriele Oettingen calls WOOP — an acronym that stands for Wish, Outcome, Obstacle, Plan.

Let me walk you through WOOP using one of my New Year’s resolutions as an example.

Wish: Exercise five times per week.

This goal is challenging yet feasible. I’m reliably exercising on Saturdays and Sundays, but only twice (at most) on weekdays.

Outcome: Get a great night’s sleep more consistently.

I sleep better on days when I’ve worked out.

Obstacle: My mornings are busy. And I hate working out in the evening.

Most weekdays, I make breakfast and then, when my girls start school, I have scheduled phone calls and meetings for work.

Plan: When it’s 8 a.m. on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, I’ll go running.

The final step in WOOP can take the longest. I started with the idea that I’d wake up at 5 a.m. to exercise. Then I realized this schedule conflicted with my goal of getting more sleep! Ultimately, I decided to move my work commitments to start at 9 a.m. three days a week.

Don’t assume that self-control means relying on old-fashioned willpower.

Do WOOP your New Year’s resolutions! Ask yourself, “What holds me back?” And then think of a strategy. In the words of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: A goal without a plan is just a wish.

Angela Duckworth is the founder and CEO of Character Lab and a psychology professor at the University of Pennsylvania. You can sign up to receive her Tip of the Week — actionable advice about the science of character — at characterlab.org. A version of this column originally appeared on characterlab.org in January 2019.