AUSTIN, Texas - The Texas State Board of Education adopted a social studies and history curriculum Friday that amends or waters down the teaching of the civil rights movement, slavery, America's relationship with the United Nations, and hundreds of other items.
The ideological debate over the guidelines, which drew intense scrutiny beyond Texas, will be used to teach about 4.8 million Texas students for the next 10 years.
The standards also will be used by textbook publishers who often develop materials for other states based on those approved in Texas, although Texas teachers have latitude in deciding which material to teach.
The board took separate votes on standards for high schools and kindergarten through eighth grades. The final vote was 9-5 on each set of standards.
The debate has brought national attention, including testimony from educators, civil rights leaders and a former U.S. education secretary.
The ideological dispute contributed to the defeat of one of the board's most outspoken conservatives, chairman Don McLeroy, in the March state Republican primary.
In final edits leading up to the vote, conservatives rejected language to modernize the classification of historic periods to B.C.E. and C.E. from the traditional B.C. and A.D. They also required that public school students in Texas evaluate efforts by global organizations such as the United Nations to undermine U.S. sovereignty.
During the monthslong process of creating the guidelines, conservatives successfully strengthened the requirements on teaching the Judeo-Christian influences of the nation's Founding Fathers and attempted to water down rationale for the separation of church and state.
The standards will refer to the U.S. government as a "constitutional republic," rather than "democratic," and students will be required to study the decline in the value of the U.S. dollar, including the abandonment of the gold standard.
Board members also gave a thumbs down to requiring history teachers and textbooks to provide coverage on the late Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D., Mass.) while the late President Ronald Reagan was elevated to more prominent coverage in the curriculum.
In addition, the requirements place Sen. Joseph McCarthy in a more positive light in U.S. history despite the view of most historians who condemn the late Republican senator's tactics and his claims that the U.S. government was infiltrated by communists in the 1950s.
Conservatives say the Texas history curriculum has been unfairly skewed to the left after years of Democrats controlling the board.
Educators have blasted the proposed curriculum for politicizing education.