WASHINGTON - Congress bailed out Wall Street and the auto industry, but it appears to have drawn the line - at least for now - at rescuing teachers.

A Democratic plan to send $23 billion to the states to save the jobs of 100,000 to 300,000 public school teachers, librarians, counselors, and other employees scheduled for layoffs looks dead for now.

Blame it on election-year politics. The anti-Washington, antispending mood has become so potent, even Democrats are antsy about helping teachers, one of their most long-standing and generous allies.

"We are in a situation now where a portion of our caucus is rebelling against just about any kind of spending," said Democratic Rep. Emanuel Cleaver of Missouri.

The layoffs already have begun. Advocates for teachers are calling them catastrophic. Critics of the emergency aid say states need to clean up their fiscal acts and make changes. In the meantime, large, populous states such as California and Texas are each expected to absorb the loss of more than 30,000 teachers and other personnel, according to White House estimates.

Schools are cutting staff and programs because the recession has depleted state tax revenue, which pays for public education.

Democrats in the House had hoped last week to pass the $23 billion emergency bailout as part of a spending bill for the war in Afghanistan that was set for passage, but fiscally conservative members from tough districts were not happy about having to defend another vote that would increase the deficit.

The school-aid measure never came to a vote. Nor did it have any more luck in the Senate, where some Democrats were equally jumpy about spending, and the majority could not secure the necessary 60 votes for passage.

"Given the size of the current federal deficit, I have reservations about the federal government taking on greater responsibility for education funding," said Democratic Sen. Claire McCaskill of Missouri.

Teachers have been a powerful voice in Democratic Party politics. The two largest unions gave congressional Democrats more than $4 million in 2008 and have contributed more than $1.7 million so far in this election cycle.

Kim Anderson, director of government relations for the National Education Association, said that, given what schools and students were likely to face this fall because of the layoffs and cutbacks, "we are struggling to see why people view this as a tough vote. We view this as a pretty commonsense vote. We really think [the layoffs] will have the most catastrophic impact on education that we have seen since the Great Depression."

Critics say the Education Department already received $100 billion in economic-stimulus money and has not spent all of it, so why should Congress approve more?

"Congress should not add to the nation's burgeoning public debt while states are still sitting on funds that were provided 15 months ago," said Republican Sen. Pat Roberts of Kansas.

Education Department officials said most of the unspent stimulus money could not be used to prevent layoffs, because it was obligated to other programs. Department spokeswoman Sandra Abrevaya said the administration might approve the emergency money after the weeklong Memorial Day recess.