The Rev. Mark Tyler awoke before dawn Tuesday, invigorated by the giant protest that had shut down Center City the previous day - and ready to confront the question on everyone's mind:
Through weeks of planning, he and other organizers promised the Martin Luther King's Birthday march would be just the start, the public launch of a new movement to bring concrete change to Philadelphia.
But protest can be a limited tactic, and even the best-led social movements can fizzle.
The three central goals of the MLK DARE coalition - fully funded schools, an end to stop-and-frisk police tactics, and a doubling of the minimum wage - require not only public support but cooperation from government leaders who may or may not act.
"The word I've been using to talk about the movement going forward is nuanced," said Tyler, pastor of Mother Bethel AME Church. "It will take a great deal of education - of the public, and of elected officials."
Organizers planned to meet Saturday night to discuss next steps to map the near-future of a coalition that grew out of the "Black Lives Matter" protests in December. Those demonstrations were propelled by anger over the killings of unarmed African Americans by white police officers in Missouri and New York.
More marches are possible in Philadelphia, though the ultimate success of the movement is impossible to predict.
"The odds are against any kind of protest movement having a long life," said Heather Gautney, a Fordham University sociologist. "It takes a tremendous amount of time, energy, and resources, and most people don't have those things. Everyday life is an impediment to a movement."
On the other hand, she said, MLK DARE made smart choices in its initial goals. Police policies, school funding, and fair wages are interrelated, she said.
The coalition of 70 student, union, education, and activist groups chose its core demands because all seemed achievable - and because some groups already were at work.
"This is the people telling their representatives what they want," said Bishop Dwayne Royster, pastor of Living Water United Church of Christ and executive director of Philadelphians Organized to Witness, Empower and Rebuild (POWER).
Coalition leaders say they strike at a key time, with a new Philadelphia mayor due to be elected, a new Democratic governor seated in Harrisburg, and the country sensitized to racial and police issues.
"The energy from the day of the march is going to really push us to move some legislation," said Kendra Brooks of Action United. "There's a lot of work to do - and the time is now."
First up: Revocation of stop-and-frisk, the practice whereby officers stop and question pedestrians, then search them for weapons or drugs. Coalition leaders want to meet with Mayor Nutter and Police Commissioner Charles H. Ramsey - and for them to end the tactic immediately.
Advocates of repeal say police use the policy to stop young, minority males wherever and whenever they wish for reasons real and imagined, making youths feel harassed and humiliated.
But backers say police stop people based on behavior, not race, and that stop-and-frisk gets guns and drugs off the streets, preventing crimes.
The Nutter administration plans to stand firm.
"There are no plans to revoke [stop-and-frisk]," said Mark McDonald, spokesman for the mayor.
Stop-and-frisk is a tool officers use constitutionally, as affirmed by the Supreme Court, he said. In 2011, after the ACLU sued the city over the issue, a settlement created "a monitoring system that works," he added.
On King Day, 3,000 to 5,000 marchers turned what is usually a quiet holiday into a loud cry of protest, closing main routes in Center City as they sought to reclaim a more confrontational vision of the slain civil rights leader. Though short of the predicted 10,000 marchers, the event showed resentment against entrenched power and desire for change.
People of all colors and ages took part.
"We are gearing up, and we are growing," Pastor Leslie Callahan of St. Paul's Baptist Church exhorted the crowd at a pre-march rally at School District headquarters.
In an interview last week, she said the mayoral election created leverage for MLK DARE to exert "people power."
"I'm certainly going to be asking every mayoral candidate what his or her position is on stop-and-frisk," she said. "And I'm going to make a decision about for whom I vote and where I give my energy, or withhold it, on what kind of answers I get."
On the surface, some goals can seem unreachable, like raising the minimum hourly wage from $7.25 to $15. But activists note that they seek the increase in Philadelphia only - and point to other cities as precedent.
California's minimum wage is $9 an hour, but the city of San Francisco increased its rate to $11.05 this year, part of a plan to reach $15 in 2018. In Washington state, which has the nation's highest state minimum wage at $9.32, the city of Seattle plans to slowly increase its rate to $15.
"I'm totally optimistic," said Kate Goodman of 15 Now Philadelphia, a group pushing for higher pay. "We have a big group of new allies."
A $15 rate would come closer to a living wage in a city where 28 percent of residents live in poverty, she said. The effort has an ally in City Councilman Kenyatta Johnson, she added.
Even if successful in Council, though, a change in pay seems sure to be challenged in the court or legislature: Pennsylvania's minimum-wage law specifically says it "shall preempt and supersede" any local ordinance.
The groups' aim of a fully funded education system - to replace the varying amounts of money coming from Harrisburg - may be the most challenging of all.
But assistant professor Billie Murray, who studies rhetoric and protest at Villanova University, warns against underestimating social movements. For example, doubling the minimum wage might seem impossible. But segregation was once legal, she noted, and letting women vote was once considered outrageous.
One certainty, Tyler said, is change won't come easily.
"No one group has all the answers," he said. "But all of us together have enough people power and political power to push things in a direction we want to go."