1.

c. – a. - d. - b.

2. c.

3. Never. He was elected as first president of the Russian Federation in June 1991. The Union (headed by Mikhail Gorbachev) held on for a few more months and dissolved that December.

4. Imelda Marcos. Her husband, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, stepped down in 1986.

5. Hu Jintao holds both positions. He succeeded Zhang Zemin as general secretary of the party in 2002, and then succeeded him as president in 2003. Since 2004, Hu also has been the chairman of the Central Military Commission, so he is known as the Paramount Leader of China.

6. a. - c. - b. Ali Khamanei held the office from 1981 to 1989, Rafsanjani from 1989 to 1997, and Khatami from 1997 to 2005. Ahmadinejad beat Rafsanjani to win in 2005.

7. Moammar Gadhafi. He was part of a coup that overthrew King Idris I of Libya. Then they let Sanussi (who'd been Crown Prince) rule for a few weeks and threw him over. Gadhafi has never taken an official title.

8. Kim Il Sung was top guy in North Korea from 1948 until his death in 1994, when Kim Jong Il took over.

9. King Hamlet.

10. Mordred.

11. He was the president of Mexico at the start of the Mexican Wars with the United States.